Some commercial publishers, such as Elsevier, exploit “nominal copyrights” when they require the transfer of full and exclusive rights from authors to the publishing house for OA articles, while copyright remains in the name of the authors.  The assumption that this practice is a precondition for publication is misleading, as even works that are publicly available can be redirected, printed and disseminated by publishers. Instead, authors can grant a simple, non-exclusive publication license that meets the same criteria. However, according to a 2013 survey by Taylor and Francis, nearly half of the researchers surveyed said they would continue to simply transfer copyright to OA articles.  (c) the article is not defamatory and is neither copyright, enforcement, enforcement, trademark, other personality or other third party rights; and in 2017, the 9th Johnson/Storix Court of Appeal upheld a copyright transfer without a written assignment.  In this case, the author sold the Anthony Johnson software as an individual contractor and built his business in 2003 under the title Storix, Inc. The court upheld a jury decision that Johnson transferred the copyright to the company on the basis of an annual report he wrote and signed that he had transferred “all the assets” of his individual company. The jury rejected Johnson`s assertion that he only wanted to transfer the license to sell the software and also decided that Johnson would become a loan plant after the company was founded, thereby losing all rights to his spin-off works. This is the first case in which a document that is not itself a contract or agreement and does not contain a reference to copyright has been considered a “reference or a mention” of copyright transmission and where, for the first time, a single owner of a company has been characterized as embedded for copyright purposes. [doubtful – discuss] This serves as a lesson that a “letter” required by copyright law does not necessarily have to be “clear” but may contain ambiguous language that can be interpreted by dealing with the alleged transaction from third parties. 2.1 The author/publisher grants the publishing house (for U.S.
government employees, from Canada or the United Kingdom: transferable according to applicable legislation or regulations) (to the owner, if not the publisher, respectively) the following rights to the article, including additional material, as well as to all parts, excerpts or elements of it: Traditional methods of scientific publication require a complete and exclusive transfer of copyright to publishers, usually as a precondition for publication.      This process entrusts control and ownership of the dissemination and reproduction of authors as authors to publishers as broadcasters, who are then able to monetize the process.  The transfer and ownership of copyright is a delicate tension between the protection of authors` rights and the interests of publishers and institutions, both in financial and reputational law.  In OA publications, authors generally retain copyright in their work, and articles and other editions benefit from a wide range of licenses depending on the type. This is a fundamental discrepancy between the purpose of copyright (i.e. the full choice of an author/creator through the dissemination of works) and its application, because authors lose those rights when the copyright is transferred.