Virtue Consists In A Will That Is In Agreement With Nature

7. However, we must distinguish between different types of indifferent objects. Some are preferred (progmena), others are not preferred (apopro-gmena); others are not worthy of preference or rejection, indifferently in the strictest sense of the word. So there are certain things of value (axian echonta), and some things that have no value, and rather worthy of contempt (anaxian echonta), and finally things that are not of one class or another. Things in the first of these categories are preferable, things in the second must be rejected, things in the third are absolutely indifferent. Second, human beings are driven by the same natural impulse to self-preservation as other non-rational beings. Our rationality can often be used to serve this impulse, but it is not its only function. The integralness of this rationality as it develops is the ability and desire to live harmoniously with other people. Rational human nature implies conviviality. What`s in stoicism before what? The answers are not immediately visible.

We have been given many branches: something is good if and only when it participates in virtue; an agent is virtuous if and only if all his actions are virtuous; a life is happy, if and only if it is a life of virtue; An action is quite right, if and only when it comes to a virtuous action. But what`s here? Stoics have developed a detailed taxonomy of virtue, which has divided virtue into four great types: wisdom, justice, courage and moderation. Wisdom is divided into common sense, good calculation, speed, discretion and ingenuity. Justice is divided into piety, honesty, justice and fair trade. Courage is divided into perseverance, trust, high thought, cheerfulness and assiduity. Moderation is divided into good discipline, appearance, modesty and self-control. In the same way, Stoics divide vices into stupidity, injustice, cowardice, bad weather and so on. The Stoics also asserted that virtues are linked and represent a unity: to have one is to have them all. They thought the same virtuous spirit was wise, just, courageous and moderate.

Thus, the virtuous person is eliminated in a certain way in relation to each of the virtues. To support their teaching of the unity of virtue, the Stoics offered an analogy: just as someone is a poet, orator and general, but he is still an individual, virtues are united, but they apply to different spheres of action.