The 2004 UN Human Development Report ranks Costa Rica 47th out of 177 countries on the basis of life expectancy, education and income. The country is well ahead of its Central American neighbours. Life expectancy at birth is 77.9 years. Its population, 4 million in 2004, is the best trained in Central America, with a literacy rate of 95%. Both literacy and life expectancy are higher than the Latin American average. About 42% of the country`s land area is devoted to agriculture and livestock, while 38% are jungle, forest or natural vegetation. The National Protected Areas Scheme covers 22% of the total area and contributes to Costa Rica`s growing reputation as an ecotourism destination. The country is considered a transit point for illicit drugs from South America destined for the United States and Europe, although Costa Rica cooperates with the United States on drug prohibition issues. It has a low level of corruption by regional standards, but last year, several former presidents and the current president were brought to justice on corruption charges. Countries are acting because it is in their national economic interest to do so, a proposal that has long been supported by theory and practice. Comparative advantages have been recognized for nearly 200 years as a fundamental principle that explains the efficiency gains that trade between countries can achieve because of their fundamental differences. It says that countries can improve their overall economic well-being by producing products for which they are relatively more efficient, while they act for the rest.
Intra-economic trade is the other important finding that explains trade patterns that present the benefits of trade between countries on the basis of specialized production, product differentiation and economies of scale. Many Latin American countries have liberalized their trade policies and recognized the contribution that trade (and associated investments) can make to economic growth and development. At best, trade is only part of a broad development agenda and does not replace the promotion of political freedom, macroeconomic stability, strong institutions and the need for a complementary socio-economic policy2 After the adoption by the countries concerned, tariffs on about 80% of US exports to participating countries were immediately abolished. , and the rest was removed over the next decade. As a result, CAFTA-DR does not require a substantial reduction in U.S. import duties relative to other countries, as the vast majority of products produced in participating countries have already entered the United States duty-free as a result of the U.S. government`s Caribbean Basin initiative. The environment. According to a report by the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, Honduras has “a more limited slate of national environmental legislation” than its Central American neighbors. (167) Honduras passed a general environmental law in 1993 and the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment is the agency that ensures compliance with environmental legislation and coordination of environmental policy. Honduras is a party to 54 bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements, including the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol.
Supporters of the labour chapter argued that the agreement encourages countries to improve their legislation by making “implementation of their own laws” a reasonable standard, that the CBI`s option for trade sanctions is less attractive in a reciprocal free trade agreement where the United States is also subject to discipline, and that trade sanctions are a “blunt” instrument that would penalize all exporting workers whose products would be subject to Sanctions. perhaps make their situation worse rather than improve it.