The 2015 agreement between Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan – with Sudan as mediator – represents an important but predictable change in Cairo`s approach to the Nile – that these colonial agreements are not sustainable. About 85 percent of the water flowing into the Nile comes from the Ethiopian highlands through the Blue Nile; The rest comes from the White Nile. It was simply unrealistic and unsustainable for Egypt to believe that it could continue to prevent Ethiopia from using water resources within its borders to meet the needs of its people. While it is true that Egyptians depend entirely on the waters of the Nile for all their needs, they must be sensitive to the development needs of the upstream riparian countries, especially since the latter, especially Ethiopia, are able to seriously affect the quantity and quality of water flowing into the Nile. The practical and more conciliatory attitude of the Egyptian leadership in their decision to support the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERDP) project in Addis Ababa is therefore to be welcomed. Cairo must, however, go further and sign and ratify the CFA, without insisting on the changes made to Article 14(b) in order to guarantee Egypt the rights created by the Nile water agreements. With the CFA, the 11 riparian countries can negotiate in good faith to agree on an allocation formula acceptable to all and considered fair, just and reasonable. As Africa is increasingly affected by climate change, different groups on the continent must agree to cooperate to establish institutional structures that can improve their capacity to live together peacefully and allocate their natural resources, including water, equitably and sustainably. As we recently celebrated Earth Day, it is important that we reflect on the importance of natural resources like the Nile and understand why they are so important, especially for Africa and its long-term development. In fact, 160 million people depend on the waters of this important river for their living. That is why the conservation, conservation and exploitation of the waters and resources of the Nile is a common goal for all.
On Monday 23 March 2015, the heads of state and government of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan met in Khartoum, the Sudanese capital, to sign an agreement that is expected to resolve various issues arising from Ethiopia`s decision to build a dam on the Blue Nile. The Khartoum Declaration, signed by the heads of state of the three countries, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi (Egypt), Omar al-Bashir (Sudan) and Halemariam Desalegn (Ethiopia), has been described as a “Nile agreement” and helps resolve conflicts over the sharing of the Nile` waters. However, this view is misleading because, as far as we know, the agreement relates only to the Grand Éthiopian Renaissance Dam (GERDP) Blue Nile project and not to the broader, still controversial issues of the distribution of nile waters among all riparian countries. This new agreement will not resolve the dispute over the equitable, equitable and reasonable allocation and utilization of the waters of the Nile. . . .