Agreement Kyoto Protocol

July 23, 2001 – Negotiators from 178 countries meet in Germany and agree to adopt the protocol without the participation of the United States. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gases. The Protocol was adopted at a conference held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997, and became on 16 February 2005. In 2005, many countries, including those in the EU, planned to meet or exceed their targets under the agreement by 2011. Others, such as the United States and China – the world`s largest emitters – produced enough greenhouse gases to mitigate the progress of countries that met their targets. In fact, global emissions increased by about 40% between 1990 and 2009. 10 November 2001 – Representatives from 160 countries meet in Marrakech, Morocco, to work out the details of the protocol. After a series of conferences, mired in disagreement, delegates signed a global but non-binding agreement at COP21 held in Paris, France, in 2015 to limit the rise in global average temperature to a maximum of 2°C (3.6°F) above the pre-industrial level, while striving to keep this rise at 1.5°C (2.7°F) above pre-industrial level. The pioneering agreement signed by the 196 signatories to the UNFCCC effectively replaced the Kyoto Protocol. He also ordered a five-year progress review and the development of a fund with a turnover of $US 100 billion by 2020, which would be replenished annually to help developing countries adopt technologies that do not produce greenhouse gases.

The United States, which had ratified the original Kyoto agreement, left the protocol in 2001. The U.S. thought the deal was unfair because it only asked industrialized countries to limit emissions reductions, and it thought it would hurt the U.S. The protocol offered countries several ways to achieve their objectives. One approach was to use natural processes called “sinks” that remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Planting trees that absorb carbon dioxide from the air would be an example. Another approach was the international programme called the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which encouraged industrialized countries to invest in technology and infrastructure in less developed countries, where opportunities for reducing emissions were often considerable. Under the CDM, the invested country could claim effective emission reductions as a credit for the implementation of its obligations under the Protocol. An example would be investing in a clean natural gas plant to replace a planned coal-fired plant…