An example of a mortgage came before the Court in 1991 with the case of Bank IV Topeka against Topeka Bank & Trust Co. It was there that Florene E. Lauver released a $100,000 Certificate of Deposit (CD) from the Capitol Federal Savings & Loan Association in February 1984. The CD was valid until 9 February 1987. In July 1984, Lauver entered into a loan agreement authorizing Richard Cummins to use the CD as collateral at Topeka Bank & Trust Co. The mortgage is the most common in mortgage financing. The borrower technically owns the house, but since the house is mortgaged as collateral, the lender has the right to confiscate the house if the borrower cannot meet the repayment conditions of the loan agreement – which happened during the foreclosure crisis. Car loans are guaranteed in the same way by the underlying vehicle. Before Lehman`s bankruptcy, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) calculated that remortgaging allowed U.S.
banks to receive more than $4 trillion, much of which came from the United Kingdom, where there is no legal limit for reusing a customer`s collateral. It is estimated that only $1 trillion in initial guarantees have been used, meaning that guarantees have been realalized several times with an estimated starting factor of 4.  Margin loans on brokerage accounts are another common form of mortgage. When an investor chooses to buy on Margin or Sell-Short, he accepts that these securities can be sold if necessary if a margin call is made. The investor owns the securities in his account, but the broker can sell them if he makes a margin call that the investor cannot honor to cover investors` losses. The mortgage is a common feature of mortgage consumer contracts – the debtor owns the house legally, but until the mortgage is repaid, the creditor has the right to take possession (and perhaps ownership) – but only if the debtor does not follow the repayments.  If a consumer accepts an additional loan that is secured against the value of their mortgage (community by the name “second mortgage”, for example for the current value of the house minus unpaid repayments), then the consumer mortgages the mortgage itself – the creditor can still seize the house, but in this case, the creditor then becomes responsible for the outstanding mortgage debt. . . .