The lack of significant progress between the parties over the past eighteen years and effective political agreements to reduce CO2 emissions has prompted some countries, such as the United States, to refrain from ratifying the main UNFCCC agreement – the Kyoto Protocol – largely because the treaty does not apply to developing countries, which are now among the largest emitters of CO2. All are part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Annex 1 countries are invited to adopt national policies and take appropriate measures to mitigate climate change by limiting their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to report on measures taken to return individually or collectively to 1990 emissions.  Developed countries with specific financial responsibilities are also designated as Annex II countries. They cover all Annex I countries, with the exception of those in transition to democracy and a market economy. . . .